Group of companies "Relvest"
9-ya Sovetskaya street, 4,
St-Petersburg, 193015, Russia
(+7-812) 274 6078, 274 5623.
Why does RFID technology conquers new and wide markets intruding into various types of activities requiring fast and reliable identification of subjects? It has a number of advantages, such as:
RFID tags do not require contact or direct visibility;
RFID tags are read fast and accurately (approaching 100 % identification);
RFID is applicable in hostile environment and RFID tags can be read through dirt, paint, steam, water, plastic and timber;
passive RFID tags have actually unlimited service life;
RFID tags are highly informative and may be intellectual;
RFID tags are actually unforgeable;
RFID tags are readable and writable to keep multiple data.
In public transport applications Mifare® Card produced by Philips Semiconductors are prevailing (about 80 %.) In particular, they are used in Moscow Underground, suburban trains and in with a number of other applications. Transport contacless smart cards comply with ISO 14443 third level and are provided with proprietary crypto protection mechanism making these cards unforgeable on the part of those who would like to travel at the expense of others. These cards are also used with petrol stations, club systems and other multiple applications, where contactless technology is unexpendable and protection against unauthorized access is required.
Logistics and WarehousesThese applications use Identifiers of two standards of high frequency range (ISO 15693 and EPC), as well as Identifiers of ultra high frequency range of ISO 18000 Standard.
The demand in EPC (electronic product code) Standard has been caused by the following: firstly, writable tags as per ISO 15693 are not profitable with application, where products have to be marked only; and, secondly, privacy concept is violated, when they are used, that caused a number of scandalous trials. EPC is similar to strip code (by data format), and tag deactivation function (destroy) gives the opportunity to destroy it, when it is not required any longer.
Ultra high frequency range tags (800 MHz - 2.45 GHz) provide maximum coverage of writing and reading (up to 6 - 8 m) that is unexpendable, when RFID technology is introduced for warehouse stock control.
Electronic DocumentsThis is absolutely new and promising trend in RFID technology application. Fast reading and reliability, high protection from unauthorized access makes it possible to introduce electronic tagging of passports, driving licenses, flight tickets and other documents.
In particular, in 2006 in accordance with the latest data EC countries are going to introduce RFID tagged passports, entrance visas will also be fitted with electronic internals, and ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) is planning to introduce electronic flight tickets by 2010.
Currently many countries are developing projects related to application of electronic basis for domestic passports. In this case the embedded passport tag will include biometric data as well as a colored digital photo of passport owner in addition to common data (name, year of birth, etc.)
Access Control Systems (ACS)Historically this is the oldest application of RFID technology. Nowadays application of contactless plastic cards (proximity cards) for access to office or facility is a common practice. First proximity-based technologies were rather expensive (to compare with magnetic cards that were mostly popular at that time), however convenience and reliability provided with RFID actually squeezed off all rival technologies from the market of professional access control systems.
Dominating part of cards and readers for access control systems work in passive mode in 125 kHz range. Actually there are no established standards, however EM Marin, HID and Motorola (Indala) are the most popular and common formats.
Smart cards under ISO 14443 (13.56 MHz) has recently come to use with Access Control Systems. The reasons are as follows: firstly, hundreds of millions of such cards in use all over the world, and, secondly, application of these cards provides a number of advantages.
Mifare® - is the registered trade mark of Philips Semiconductors